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@herve-pages-1542
Last seen 3 days ago
Seattle, WA, United States
Cancer Cancer • 898 views
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@herve-pages-1542
Last seen 3 days ago
Seattle, WA, United States
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Entering edit mode
@herve-pages-1542
Last seen 3 days ago
Seattle, WA, United States
0
Entering edit mode
@herve-pages-1542
Last seen 3 days ago
Seattle, WA, United States
Dear Liang, Please keep the communication on the mailing list (by using the "Reply All" button). On 03/30/2014 12:13 PM, Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E] wrote: > Dear Herve, > > I use the following command to read in the alignments: > > bam.path<-"test.bam" > bam.file<-BamFile(bam.path, yieldSize=1E6, asMates=TRUE) > > param<-ScanBamParam(flag=scanBamFlag(isPaired=TRUE,hasUnmappedMate=F ALSE,isUnmappedQuery=FALSE,isNotPassingQualityControls=FALSE,isDuplica te=FALSE,isNotPrimaryRead=FALSE)) > alignment<-readGAlignmentsList(bam.file,param=param) > > However, each element ((a pair of alignments)) of the GAlignmentsList "alignment" has meta field Mates as "FALSE" for both reads. Is it a problem? I'm surprised that *each* list element in your GAlignmentsList object 'alignment' looks like this. How do you know? Why not show us the object? My understanding is that even though your BAM file contains paired-end reads, when you read it with readGAlignmentsList(), you end up with a GAlignmentsList object where some fraction of the list elements have the "mates" field set to FALSE. The reads in such list element have the same QNAME but are not mates. Note that all list elements with the "mates" field set to TRUE are guaranteed to contain exactly 2 reads. But there is no such expectation for list elements with the "mates" field set to FALSE: they can contain 1, 2, 3, or more reads. So if *each* list element in your GAlignmentsList object 'alignment' really has the "mates" field set to FALSE, that means none of the reads in your file could be mated. That could actually happen if your data was not paired-end and if you didn't use isPaired=TRUE but that doesn't seem to be the case here. Here is how you can summarize how many list elements have the "mates" field set to FALSE and how many have it set to TRUE: table(mcols(unlist(alignment, use.names=FALSE))mates[end(PartitioningByEnd(alignment))]) Finally note that in BioC devel, the "mates" field has been replaced by the "mate_status" field and that this field is now an attribute of the list elements rather than of the individual reads. This means that it's a top-level metadata column (i.e. directly accessible with mcols(alignment)mate_status) instead of an inner metadata column (which are more complicated to access). So it's much easier now to get the above count: table(mcols(alignment)$mate_status) This will give you something like: > table(mcols(galist1)$mate_status) mated ambiguous unmated 75346 0 21286 As you can see, another change is that this field is now a 3-level factor (levels are explained in ?readGAlignmentsList). Hope this helps, H. > > Liang > > > ________________________________________ > From: Hervé Pagès [hpages at fhcrc.org] > Sent: Sunday, March 30, 2014 2:54 PM > To: Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E]; bioconductor at r-project.org > Subject: Re: A question about the function readGAlignmentPairs in GenomicRnages package > > On 03/30/2014 11:52 AM, Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E] wrote: >> Sorry for the typo in the previous email. What I mean is "I do NEED (not NOT) the pairing information". > > I see. So yes, readGAlignmentsList() should do it. > > Cheers, > H. > >> >> Liang >> ________________________________________ >> From: Hervé Pagès [hpages at fhcrc.org] >> Sent: Sunday, March 30, 2014 2:51 PM >> To: Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E]; bioconductor at r-project.org >> Subject: Re: A question about the function readGAlignmentPairs in GenomicRnages package >> >> On 03/30/2014 11:31 AM, Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E] wrote: >>> Dear Herve, >>> >>> Thanks for your suggestion. I do not the paring information in the downstream analysis, therefore, readGAlignmentsList() is good. >> >> Maybe I was not clear enough but if you don't need the pairing, then >> you can just use readGAlignments(). readGAlignmentsList() will pair >> everything that can be paired and this has a cost (in terms of >> performance and memory usage). By using readGAlignments() you avoid >> that cost and you also end up with an object that is a little bit >> simpler to manipulate (i.e. a GAlignments instead of GAlignmentsList >> object). >> >> Hope that makes sense, >> H. >> >>> >>> Liang >>> ________________________________________ >>> From: Hervé Pagès [hpages at fhcrc.org] >>> Sent: Sunday, March 30, 2014 2:12 PM >>> To: Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E] >>> Cc: bioconductor at r-project.org >>> Subject: Re: A question about the function readGAlignmentPairs in GenomicRnages package >>> >>> Hi Liang, >>> >>> Hope you don't mind that I'm cc'ing the Bioconductor mailing list, so >>> other can give suggestions. >>> >>> On 03/30/2014 09:32 AM, Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E] wrote: >>>> Dear Mr. Pages, >>>> >>>> This is Liang Niu, a research fellow at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. >>>> >>>> I am using R to read .bam files for chromatin interaction data sets. Such data sets contains alignments for paired-end reads from ChIA-PET experiment, thus it has pairs in which two reads on different chromosomes and/or on same strand, and those pairs are valid pairs. I want to use your function readGAlignmentPairs in GenomicRnages package to read the pairs, but the manual says that it will discard those pairs. Do you have any suggestion? >>> >>> You could use readGAlignmentsList() instead of readGAlignmentPairs(). >>> readGAlignmentsList() will keep these "discordant pairs". It will also >>> keep the reads that cannot be paired. >>> Note that, depending on what you will do downstream, you don't >>> necessarily need to pair the reads (e.g. if you're going to compute >>> the read coverage). In that case you can just load the reads with >>> readGAlignments(). >>> >>> Cheers, >>> H. >>> >>>> >>>> Best, >>>> Liang >>>> >>> >>> -- >>> Hervé Pagès >>> >>> Program in Computational Biology >>> Division of Public Health Sciences >>> Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center >>> 1100 Fairview Ave. N, M1-B514 >>> P.O. Box 19024 >>> Seattle, WA 98109-1024 >>> >>> E-mail: hpages at fhcrc.org >>> Phone: (206) 667-5791 >>> Fax: (206) 667-1319 >>> >> >> -- >> Hervé Pagès >> >> Program in Computational Biology >> Division of Public Health Sciences >> Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center >> 1100 Fairview Ave. N, M1-B514 >> P.O. Box 19024 >> Seattle, WA 98109-1024 >> >> E-mail: hpages at fhcrc.org >> Phone: (206) 667-5791 >> Fax: (206) 667-1319 >> > > -- > Hervé Pagès > > Program in Computational Biology > Division of Public Health Sciences > Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center > 1100 Fairview Ave. N, M1-B514 > P.O. Box 19024 > Seattle, WA 98109-1024 > > E-mail: hpages at fhcrc.org > Phone: (206) 667-5791 > Fax: (206) 667-1319 > -- Hervé Pagès Program in Computational Biology Division of Public Health Sciences Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center 1100 Fairview Ave. N, M1-B514 P.O. Box 19024 Seattle, WA 98109-1024 E-mail: hpages at fhcrc.org Phone: (206) 667-5791 Fax: (206) 667-1319
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Dear Herve, Here is the code and output: > bam.path<-"test.bam" > bam.file<-BamFile(bam.path,asMates=TRUE) > > param<-ScanBamParam(flag=scanBamFlag(isPaired=TRUE,hasUnmappedMate=F ALSE,isUnmappedQuery=FALSE,isNotPassingQualityControls=FALSE,isDuplica te=FALSE,isNotPrimaryRead=FALSE)) > alignment<-readGAlignmentsList(bam.file,param=param) > length(alignment) [1] 18041910 > table(mcols(unlist(alignment, use.names=FALSE))mates[end(PartitioningByEnd(alignment))]) FALSE 18041910 What is the problem? Thanks! Liang ________________________________________ From: Hervé Pagès [hpages@fhcrc.org] Sent: Sunday, March 30, 2014 4:13 PM To: Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E]; bioconductor at r-project.org Subject: Re: A question about the function readGAlignmentPairs in GenomicRnages package Dear Liang, Please keep the communication on the mailing list (by using the "Reply All" button). On 03/30/2014 12:13 PM, Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E] wrote: > Dear Herve, > > I use the following command to read in the alignments: > > bam.path<-"test.bam" > bam.file<-BamFile(bam.path, yieldSize=1E6, asMates=TRUE) > > param<-ScanBamParam(flag=scanBamFlag(isPaired=TRUE,hasUnmappedMate=F ALSE,isUnmappedQuery=FALSE,isNotPassingQualityControls=FALSE,isDuplica te=FALSE,isNotPrimaryRead=FALSE)) > alignment<-readGAlignmentsList(bam.file,param=param) > > However, each element ((a pair of alignments)) of the GAlignmentsList "alignment" has meta field Mates as "FALSE" for both reads. Is it a problem? I'm surprised that *each* list element in your GAlignmentsList object 'alignment' looks like this. How do you know? Why not show us the object? My understanding is that even though your BAM file contains paired-end reads, when you read it with readGAlignmentsList(), you end up with a GAlignmentsList object where some fraction of the list elements have the "mates" field set to FALSE. The reads in such list element have the same QNAME but are not mates. Note that all list elements with the "mates" field set to TRUE are guaranteed to contain exactly 2 reads. But there is no such expectation for list elements with the "mates" field set to FALSE: they can contain 1, 2, 3, or more reads. So if *each* list element in your GAlignmentsList object 'alignment' really has the "mates" field set to FALSE, that means none of the reads in your file could be mated. That could actually happen if your data was not paired-end and if you didn't use isPaired=TRUE but that doesn't seem to be the case here. Here is how you can summarize how many list elements have the "mates" field set to FALSE and how many have it set to TRUE: table(mcols(unlist(alignment, use.names=FALSE))mates[end(PartitioningByEnd(alignment))]) Finally note that in BioC devel, the "mates" field has been replaced by the "mate_status" field and that this field is now an attribute of the list elements rather than of the individual reads. This means that it's a top-level metadata column (i.e. directly accessible with mcols(alignment)mate_status) instead of an inner metadata column (which are more complicated to access). So it's much easier now to get the above count: table(mcols(alignment)mate_status) This will give you something like: > table(mcols(galist1)mate_status) mated ambiguous unmated 75346 0 21286 As you can see, another change is that this field is now a 3-level factor (levels are explained in ?readGAlignmentsList). Hope this helps, H. > > Liang > > > ________________________________________ > From: Hervé Pagès [hpages at fhcrc.org] > Sent: Sunday, March 30, 2014 2:54 PM > To: Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E]; bioconductor at r-project.org > Subject: Re: A question about the function readGAlignmentPairs in GenomicRnages package > > On 03/30/2014 11:52 AM, Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E] wrote: >> Sorry for the typo in the previous email. What I mean is "I do NEED (not NOT) the pairing information". > > I see. So yes, readGAlignmentsList() should do it. > > Cheers, > H. > >> >> Liang >> ________________________________________ >> From: Hervé Pagès [hpages at fhcrc.org] >> Sent: Sunday, March 30, 2014 2:51 PM >> To: Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E]; bioconductor at r-project.org >> Subject: Re: A question about the function readGAlignmentPairs in GenomicRnages package >> >> On 03/30/2014 11:31 AM, Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E] wrote: >>> Dear Herve, >>> >>> Thanks for your suggestion. I do not the paring information in the downstream analysis, therefore, readGAlignmentsList() is good. >> >> Maybe I was not clear enough but if you don't need the pairing, then >> you can just use readGAlignments(). readGAlignmentsList() will pair >> everything that can be paired and this has a cost (in terms of >> performance and memory usage). By using readGAlignments() you avoid >> that cost and you also end up with an object that is a little bit >> simpler to manipulate (i.e. a GAlignments instead of GAlignmentsList >> object). >> >> Hope that makes sense, >> H. >> >>> >>> Liang >>> ________________________________________ >>> From: Hervé Pagès [hpages at fhcrc.org] >>> Sent: Sunday, March 30, 2014 2:12 PM >>> To: Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E] >>> Cc: bioconductor at r-project.org >>> Subject: Re: A question about the function readGAlignmentPairs in GenomicRnages package >>> >>> Hi Liang, >>> >>> Hope you don't mind that I'm cc'ing the Bioconductor mailing list, so >>> other can give suggestions. >>> >>> On 03/30/2014 09:32 AM, Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E] wrote: >>>> Dear Mr. Pages, >>>> >>>> This is Liang Niu, a research fellow at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. >>>> >>>> I am using R to read .bam files for chromatin interaction data sets. Such data sets contains alignments for paired-end reads from ChIA-PET experiment, thus it has pairs in which two reads on different chromosomes and/or on same strand, and those pairs are valid pairs. I want to use your function readGAlignmentPairs in GenomicRnages package to read the pairs, but the manual says that it will discard those pairs. Do you have any suggestion? >>> >>> You could use readGAlignmentsList() instead of readGAlignmentPairs(). >>> readGAlignmentsList() will keep these "discordant pairs". It will also >>> keep the reads that cannot be paired. >>> Note that, depending on what you will do downstream, you don't >>> necessarily need to pair the reads (e.g. if you're going to compute >>> the read coverage). In that case you can just load the reads with >>> readGAlignments(). >>> >>> Cheers, >>> H. >>> >>>> >>>> Best, >>>> Liang >>>> >>> >>> -- >>> Hervé Pagès >>> >>> Program in Computational Biology >>> Division of Public Health Sciences >>> Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center >>> 1100 Fairview Ave. N, M1-B514 >>> P.O. Box 19024 >>> Seattle, WA 98109-1024 >>> >>> E-mail: hpages at fhcrc.org >>> Phone: (206) 667-5791 >>> Fax: (206) 667-1319 >>> >> >> -- >> Hervé Pagès >> >> Program in Computational Biology >> Division of Public Health Sciences >> Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center >> 1100 Fairview Ave. N, M1-B514 >> P.O. Box 19024 >> Seattle, WA 98109-1024 >> >> E-mail: hpages at fhcrc.org >> Phone: (206) 667-5791 >> Fax: (206) 667-1319 >> > > -- > Hervé Pagès > > Program in Computational Biology > Division of Public Health Sciences > Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center > 1100 Fairview Ave. N, M1-B514 > P.O. Box 19024 > Seattle, WA 98109-1024 > > E-mail: hpages at fhcrc.org > Phone: (206) 667-5791 > Fax: (206) 667-1319 > -- Hervé Pagès Program in Computational Biology Division of Public Health Sciences Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center 1100 Fairview Ave. N, M1-B514 P.O. Box 19024 Seattle, WA 98109-1024 E-mail: hpages at fhcrc.org Phone: (206) 667-5791 Fax: (206) 667-1319 ADD REPLY 0 Entering edit mode @herve-pages-1542 Last seen 3 days ago Seattle, WA, United States On 03/30/2014 01:31 PM, Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E] wrote: > Dear Herve, > > Here is the code and output: > >> bam.path<-"test.bam" >> bam.file<-BamFile(bam.path,asMates=TRUE) >> >> param<-ScanBamParam(flag=scanBamFlag(isPaired=TRUE,hasUnmappedMate= FALSE,isUnmappedQuery=FALSE,isNotPassingQualityControls=FALSE,isDuplic ate=FALSE,isNotPrimaryRead=FALSE)) >> alignment<-readGAlignmentsList(bam.file,param=param) >> length(alignment) > [1] 18041910 >> table(mcols(unlist(alignment, use.names=FALSE))mates[end(PartitioningByEnd(alignment))]) > > FALSE > 18041910 > > What is the problem? Whaoo. No idea :-/ I'm on week-end right now and have to turn off the computer due to other obligations, sorry. I'll try to get to this later. In the mean time it would be great if you could install R-3.1.0 + BioC 2.14 (you will need the GenomicAlignments package) and try this again. Thanks, H. > > Thanks! > > Liang > > ________________________________________ > From: Hervé Pagès [hpages at fhcrc.org] > Sent: Sunday, March 30, 2014 4:13 PM > To: Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E]; bioconductor at r-project.org > Subject: Re: A question about the function readGAlignmentPairs in GenomicRnages package > > Dear Liang, > > Please keep the communication on the mailing list (by using > the "Reply All" button). > > On 03/30/2014 12:13 PM, Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E] wrote: >> Dear Herve, >> >> I use the following command to read in the alignments: >> >> bam.path<-"test.bam" >> bam.file<-BamFile(bam.path, yieldSize=1E6, asMates=TRUE) >> >> param<-ScanBamParam(flag=scanBamFlag(isPaired=TRUE,hasUnmappedMate= FALSE,isUnmappedQuery=FALSE,isNotPassingQualityControls=FALSE,isDuplic ate=FALSE,isNotPrimaryRead=FALSE)) >> alignment<-readGAlignmentsList(bam.file,param=param) >> >> However, each element ((a pair of alignments)) of the GAlignmentsList "alignment" has meta field Mates as "FALSE" for both reads. Is it a problem? > > I'm surprised that *each* list element in your GAlignmentsList object > 'alignment' looks like this. How do you know? Why not show us the > object? > > My understanding is that even though your BAM file contains paired- end > reads, when you read it with readGAlignmentsList(), you end up with a > GAlignmentsList object where some fraction of the list elements have > the "mates" field set to FALSE. The reads in such list element have the > same QNAME but are not mates. Note that all list elements with the > "mates" field set to TRUE are guaranteed to contain exactly 2 reads. > But there is no such expectation for list elements with the "mates" > field set to FALSE: they can contain 1, 2, 3, or more reads. > > So if *each* list element in your GAlignmentsList object > 'alignment' really has the "mates" field set to FALSE, that > means none of the reads in your file could be mated. That could > actually happen if your data was not paired-end and if you didn't > use isPaired=TRUE but that doesn't seem to be the case here. > > Here is how you can summarize how many list elements have the > "mates" field set to FALSE and how many have it set to TRUE: > > table(mcols(unlist(alignment, > use.names=FALSE))mates[end(PartitioningByEnd(alignment))]) > > Finally note that in BioC devel, the "mates" field has been replaced > by the "mate_status" field and that this field is now an attribute of > the list elements rather than of the individual reads. This means that > it's a top-level metadata column (i.e. directly accessible with > mcols(alignment)mate_status) instead of an inner metadata column > (which are more complicated to access). So it's much easier now to get > the above count: > > table(mcols(alignment)$mate_status) > > This will give you something like: > > > table(mcols(galist1)$mate_status) > > mated ambiguous unmated > 75346 0 21286 > > As you can see, another change is that this field is now a 3-level > factor (levels are explained in ?readGAlignmentsList). > > Hope this helps, > H. > > >> >> Liang >> >> >> ________________________________________ >> From: Hervé Pagès [hpages at fhcrc.org] >> Sent: Sunday, March 30, 2014 2:54 PM >> To: Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E]; bioconductor at r-project.org >> Subject: Re: A question about the function readGAlignmentPairs in GenomicRnages package >> >> On 03/30/2014 11:52 AM, Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E] wrote: >>> Sorry for the typo in the previous email. What I mean is "I do NEED (not NOT) the pairing information". >> >> I see. So yes, readGAlignmentsList() should do it. >> >> Cheers, >> H. >> >>> >>> Liang >>> ________________________________________ >>> From: Hervé Pagès [hpages at fhcrc.org] >>> Sent: Sunday, March 30, 2014 2:51 PM >>> To: Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E]; bioconductor at r-project.org >>> Subject: Re: A question about the function readGAlignmentPairs in GenomicRnages package >>> >>> On 03/30/2014 11:31 AM, Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E] wrote: >>>> Dear Herve, >>>> >>>> Thanks for your suggestion. I do not the paring information in the downstream analysis, therefore, readGAlignmentsList() is good. >>> >>> Maybe I was not clear enough but if you don't need the pairing, then >>> you can just use readGAlignments(). readGAlignmentsList() will pair >>> everything that can be paired and this has a cost (in terms of >>> performance and memory usage). By using readGAlignments() you avoid >>> that cost and you also end up with an object that is a little bit >>> simpler to manipulate (i.e. a GAlignments instead of GAlignmentsList >>> object). >>> >>> Hope that makes sense, >>> H. >>> >>>> >>>> Liang >>>> ________________________________________ >>>> From: Hervé Pagès [hpages at fhcrc.org] >>>> Sent: Sunday, March 30, 2014 2:12 PM >>>> To: Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E] >>>> Cc: bioconductor at r-project.org >>>> Subject: Re: A question about the function readGAlignmentPairs in GenomicRnages package >>>> >>>> Hi Liang, >>>> >>>> Hope you don't mind that I'm cc'ing the Bioconductor mailing list, so >>>> other can give suggestions. >>>> >>>> On 03/30/2014 09:32 AM, Niu, Liang (NIH/NIEHS) [E] wrote: >>>>> Dear Mr. Pages, >>>>> >>>>> This is Liang Niu, a research fellow at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. >>>>> >>>>> I am using R to read .bam files for chromatin interaction data sets. Such data sets contains alignments for paired-end reads from ChIA-PET experiment, thus it has pairs in which two reads on different chromosomes and/or on same strand, and those pairs are valid pairs. I want to use your function readGAlignmentPairs in GenomicRnages package to read the pairs, but the manual says that it will discard those pairs. Do you have any suggestion? >>>> >>>> You could use readGAlignmentsList() instead of readGAlignmentPairs(). >>>> readGAlignmentsList() will keep these "discordant pairs". It will also >>>> keep the reads that cannot be paired. >>>> Note that, depending on what you will do downstream, you don't >>>> necessarily need to pair the reads (e.g. if you're going to compute >>>> the read coverage). In that case you can just load the reads with >>>> readGAlignments(). >>>> >>>> Cheers, >>>> H. >>>> >>>>> >>>>> Best, >>>>> Liang >>>>> >>>> >>>> -- >>>> Hervé Pagès >>>> >>>> Program in Computational Biology >>>> Division of Public Health Sciences >>>> Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center >>>> 1100 Fairview Ave. N, M1-B514 >>>> P.O. Box 19024 >>>> Seattle, WA 98109-1024 >>>> >>>> E-mail: hpages at fhcrc.org >>>> Phone: (206) 667-5791 >>>> Fax: (206) 667-1319 >>>> >>> >>> -- >>> Hervé Pagès >>> >>> Program in Computational Biology >>> Division of Public Health Sciences >>> Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center >>> 1100 Fairview Ave. N, M1-B514 >>> P.O. Box 19024 >>> Seattle, WA 98109-1024 >>> >>> E-mail: hpages at fhcrc.org >>> Phone: (206) 667-5791 >>> Fax: (206) 667-1319 >>> >> >> -- >> Hervé Pagès >> >> Program in Computational Biology >> Division of Public Health Sciences >> Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center >> 1100 Fairview Ave. N, M1-B514 >> P.O. Box 19024 >> Seattle, WA 98109-1024 >> >> E-mail: hpages at fhcrc.org >> Phone: (206) 667-5791 >> Fax: (206) 667-1319 >> > > -- > Hervé Pagès > > Program in Computational Biology > Division of Public Health Sciences > Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center > 1100 Fairview Ave. N, M1-B514 > P.O. Box 19024 > Seattle, WA 98109-1024 > > E-mail: hpages at fhcrc.org > Phone: (206) 667-5791 > Fax: (206) 667-1319 > -- Hervé Pagès Program in Computational Biology Division of Public Health Sciences Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center 1100 Fairview Ave. N, M1-B514 P.O. Box 19024 Seattle, WA 98109-1024 E-mail: hpages at fhcrc.org Phone: (206) 667-5791 Fax: (206) 667-1319