Variogram-sill larger than 1, and negative p.li values in trimClusters-output
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@8470968e
Last seen 4 months ago
Denmark

Hi!

I've been analyzing DNA-methylation data from 48 samples from two different treatment groups, and have used BiSeq to try to find significantly differentially methylated CpGs. However, I have two issues that I would like your support on.

First, I find that the sill of the variogram for the re-sampled (null-grouped) data is larger than 1. More specifically around 1.2. My statistical understanding is not that great, so I was wondering if this is an issue? I seem to run into an error if I put it above 1 when smoothing the variogram.

Secondly, I find that the output of the trimClusters function has CpGs with negative p.li values. My understanding is that these are P-values, and should therefore not be negative. Any idea what might be the cause?

I hope you can help! I have attached the code that was used in my analysis as well as session-info below. Let me know if you need more!

library(BiSeq)
library(stringr)
library(betareg)
out_dir <- "biseq_output"

## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
col_data <- readxl::read_xlsx("metadata_RRBS.xlsx")

col_data$Sample.ID <- col_data$`Sample ID (Library ID)`
files <- gtools::mixedsort(list.files("scripts", pattern = "*cov.gz", full.names = TRUE))
names(files) <- str_remove_all(string = basename(files),
                               pattern = "_S[[:digit:]]+_R[[:digit:]]+_001.UMI_trimmed.fq_trimmed_bismark_bt2.deduplicated.bismark.cov.gz")


## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
rrbs_raw <- readBismark(unname(files[col_data$Sample.ID]), col_data)
saveRDS(rrbs_raw, file=file.path(out_dir, "rrbs_raw.RDS"))

cov_stat <- do.call(covStatistics(rrbs_raw), what = "rbind")
colnames(cov_stat) <- rrbs_raw$Sample.ID
write.csv(cov_stat, file = file.path(out_dir, "coverage_statistics.csv"))

pdf(file.path(out_dir, "coverage_boxplot_pre_smooth.pdf"))
covBoxplots(rrbs_raw, col = "cornflowerblue", las = 2)
dev.off()


## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
rrbs_clust_unlim <- clusterSites(object = rrbs_raw,
                                 groups = as.factor(colData(rrbs_raw)$Condition1),
                                 perc.samples = 4/5,
                                 min.sites = 20,
                                 max.dist = 100)

clusters <- clusterSitesToGR(rrbs_clust_unlim)
saveRDS(clusters, file = file.path(out_dir, "clusters.RDS"))


## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ind_cov <- totalReads(rrbs_clust_unlim) > 0
quant <- quantile(totalReads(rrbs_clust_unlim)[ind_cov], 0.9)

rrbs_clust_lim <- limitCov(rrbs_clust_unlim, maxCov = quant)

pdf(file.path(out_dir, "coverage_boxplot_post_smooth.pdf"))
covBoxplots(rrbs_clust_lim, col = "cornflowerblue", las = 2)
dev.off()


## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
predicted_meth <- predictMeth(object = rrbs_clust_lim, mc.cores = 80)
saveRDS(predicted_meth, file.path(out_dir, "predicted_meth.RDS"))
pdf(file.path(out_dir, "smoothed_methylation_plot.pdf"))
plotMeth(object.raw = rrbs_raw[,1],
         object.rel = predicted_meth[,1],
         region = clusters[1],
         lwd.lines = 2,
         col.points = "blue",
         cex = 1.5)
dev.off()


## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
beta_results <- betaRegression(formula = ~ Condition1,
                                      link = "probit",
                                      object = predicted_meth,
                                      type = "BR",
                                      mc.cores = 80)
saveRDS(beta_results, file.path(out_dir,"beta_results.RDS"))


## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

is_control <- which(predicted_meth$Condition1=="Control")[c(-23)]
is_covid <- which(predicted_meth$Condition1=="COVID+")[c(-23, -24, -25)]

predictedMethNull <- predicted_meth[,c(is_control,is_covid)]

colData(predictedMethNull)$group.null <- rep(c(1,2), 22)
#To shorten the run time, please set mc.cores, if possible!
betaResultsNull <- betaRegression(formula = ~group.null,
link = "probit",
object = predictedMethNull,
type="BR", mc.cores = 80)
saveRDS(betaResultsNull, file=file.path(out_dir, "beta_results_null.RDS"))


## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# make variogram
vario <- makeVariogram(betaResultsNull)
pdf(file.path(out_dir, "variogram.pdf"))
plot(vario$variogram$v)
dev.off()

# smooth variogram using sill
vario_sm <- smoothVariogram(vario, sill = 0.99)
pdf(file.path(out_dir,"variogram_combined.pdf"))
plot(vario$variogram$v)
lines(vario_sm$variogram[,c("h", "v.sm")],
      col = "red", lwd = 1.5)
grid()
dev.off()

## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
vario_aux <- makeVariogram(beta_results, make.variogram=FALSE)
vario_sm$pValsList <- vario_aux$pValsList
locCor <- estLocCor(vario_sm)

clusters_rej <- testClusters(locCor, FDR.cluster = 0.1)
clusters_trimmed <- trimClusters(clusters_rej, FDR.loc = 0.05)
saveRDS(clusters_trimmed, file = file.path(out_dir,"clusters_trimmed.RDS"))


## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DMRs <- findDMRs(clusters_trimmed,
                 max.dist = 100,
                 diff.dir = TRUE)

saveRDS(DMRs, file = file.path(out_dir,"DMRs.RDS"))

> tail(clusters_trimmed,10)
               chr       pos        p.val meth.group1 meth.group2   meth.diff    estimate  std.error pseudo.R.sqrt cluster.id     z.score pos.new          p.li
7_313.27.53815   7   1668600 4.988307e-01  0.37060148 0.353865637  0.01673585 -0.04464407 0.06600923   0.009689202      7_313 0.002931076    3904 -2.8483686879
7_313.28.53815   7   1668652 2.002920e-01  0.32829334 0.299843621  0.02844971 -0.08021965 0.06263636   0.033975194      7_313 0.840578653    3956 -2.9172344947
7_313.29.53815   7   1668670 2.284003e-01  0.34206546 0.312274171  0.02979129 -0.08258177 0.06856162   0.029649915      7_313 0.744125318    3974 -2.8126457785
7_313.31.53815   7   1668685 2.715850e-01  0.31819458 0.291411358  0.02678322 -0.07651293 0.06959392   0.024190005      7_313 0.608026364    3989 -2.6679710048
7_313.32.53815   7   1668765 3.232215e-02  0.24241993 0.203622844  0.03879708 -0.13021083 0.06083471   0.096301926      7_313 1.847710023    4069 -0.6660171024
7_313.36.53815   7   1668799 8.771825e-02  0.18883453 0.163117196  0.02571733 -0.09952767 0.05828653   0.060647147      7_313 1.354940543    4103 -1.2672760201
9_120.15.59685   9  18315698 3.424942e-07  0.90168580 0.964242419 -0.06255662  0.51097516 0.10022219   0.289505153      9_120 4.965572121     129  0.0002328785
9_120.16.59685   9  18315701 3.064997e-07  0.89448831 0.962151028 -0.06766272  0.52545587 0.10264001   0.294130231      9_120 4.987076041     132  0.0001826686
9_120.17.59685   9  18315702 2.944730e-07  0.89227377 0.961521061 -0.06924729  0.52990538 0.10335684   0.295489987      9_120 4.994807126     133  0.0001680384
9_847.20.60926   9 121651359 1.411898e-05  0.02192601 0.008299454  0.01362656 -0.37997114 0.08751057   0.157339873      9_847 4.187229948      20  0.0009093949

## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
**sessionInfo( )**
R version 4.0.3 (2020-10-10)
Platform: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu (64-bit)
Running under: CentOS Linux 7 (Core)

Matrix products: default
BLAS/LAPACK: /services/tools/intel/perflibs/2020_update4/compilers_and_libraries_2020.4.304/linux/mkl/lib/intel64_lin/libmkl_intel_lp64.so

locale:
 [1] LC_CTYPE=en_US.utf-8       LC_NUMERIC=C              
 [3] LC_TIME=en_US.utf-8        LC_COLLATE=en_US.utf-8    
 [5] LC_MONETARY=en_US.utf-8    LC_MESSAGES=en_US.utf-8   
 [7] LC_PAPER=en_US.utf-8       LC_NAME=C                 
 [9] LC_ADDRESS=C               LC_TELEPHONE=C            
[11] LC_MEASUREMENT=en_US.utf-8 LC_IDENTIFICATION=C       

attached base packages:
[1] parallel  stats4    stats     graphics  grDevices utils     datasets 
[8] methods   base     

other attached packages:
 [1] betareg_3.1-3               stringr_1.4.0              
 [3] BiSeq_1.30.0                Formula_1.2-4              
 [5] SummarizedExperiment_1.20.0 Biobase_2.50.0             
 [7] MatrixGenerics_1.2.1        matrixStats_0.61.0         
 [9] GenomicRanges_1.42.0        GenomeInfoDb_1.26.7        
[11] IRanges_2.24.1              S4Vectors_0.28.1           
[13] BiocGenerics_0.36.1        

loaded via a namespace (and not attached):
 [1] zoo_1.8-9                modeltools_0.2-23        splines_4.0.3           
 [4] lattice_0.20-41          vctrs_0.3.8              rtracklayer_1.50.0      
 [7] blob_1.2.2               XML_4.0-0                survival_3.2-7          
[10] rlang_1.0.0              DBI_1.1.2                BiocParallel_1.24.1     
[13] bit64_4.0.5              GenomeInfoDbData_1.2.4   zlibbioc_1.36.0         
[16] Biostrings_2.58.0        globaltest_5.44.0        memoise_2.0.1           
[19] fastmap_1.1.0            lmtest_0.9-39            flexmix_2.3-17          
[22] AnnotationDbi_1.52.0     Rcpp_1.0.8               xtable_1.8-4            
[25] cachem_1.0.6             DelayedArray_0.16.3      annotate_1.68.0         
[28] XVector_0.30.0           bit_4.0.4                Rsamtools_2.6.0         
[31] stringi_1.7.6            grid_4.0.3               cli_3.1.1               
[34] tools_4.0.3              bitops_1.0-7             magrittr_2.0.2          
[37] sandwich_3.0-1           RCurl_1.98-1.5           RSQLite_2.2.9           
[40] lokern_1.1-9             crayon_1.4.2             Matrix_1.3-4            
[43] httr_1.4.2               R6_2.5.1                 GenomicAlignments_1.26.0
[46] sfsmisc_1.1-7            nnet_7.3-14              compiler_4.0.3
BiSeq • 150 views
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Entering edit mode

Here's an image of the created variogram, showing the actual sill is around 1.3 (and not 1 as indicated by the red line).

Variogram

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