DESeq2 LFC changes sign after adjusting for surrogates
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Entering edit mode
Marie • 0
@9405877e
Last seen 4 days ago
Germany

Dear all, I performed a differential gene expression analysis with the DESeq2 package and corrected for hidden variation with the sva package. Now I found genes, which have a negative LFC value in response to a given treatment, although they have higher (normalized) counts in these treatment samples than in the control samples. These genes are not significantly expressed in this treatment, but they show a significant interaction between two factors and I was wondering whether I can trust the interaction term, when the sign of the ES might be wrong/biased? When I check the expression of this gene in the data set which is not corrected with sva, then the LFC in the single factor treatment is positive (still not significant), as I would expect based on the counts. I thought that the covariates will correct for data variation that is not related to the treatment but I did not expect that this might result in a change of the effect size sign?

Any thoughts on that are very much appreciated :)!

Here are the relevant code snippets


##create DESeq object
dds1 <- DESeqDataSetFromTximport(txi.sum, sampleData, design= ~ Salt*Sediment*Flow)
dds1 <- DESeq(dds1) 

##estimate SVs
dat  <- counts(dds1, normalized = TRUE)
mod  <- model.matrix(~ Salt*Sediment*Flow, colData(dds1)) ##full model
mod0 <- model.matrix(~   1, colData(dds1))
svseq <- svaseq(dat, mod, mod0)   #this estimated 10 SVs

#include SVs 

ddssva <- dds1
ddssva$SV1 <- svseq$sv[,1]
ddssva$SV2 <- svseq$sv[,2]
ddssva$SV3 <- svseq$sv[,3]
ddssva$SV4 <- svseq$sv[,4]
ddssva$SV5 <- svseq$sv[,5]
ddssva$SV6 <- svseq$sv[,6]
ddssva$SV7 <- svseq$sv[,7]
ddssva$SV8 <- svseq$sv[,8]
ddssva$SV9 <- svseq$sv[,9]
ddssva$SV10 <- svseq$sv[,10]

design(ddssva) <- ~ SV1+SV2+SV3+SV4+SV5+SV6+SV7+SV8+SV9+SV10+Salt*Sediment*Flow
ddssva <- DESeq(ddssva) 

##genes which show a different expression due to the interaction of sediment and flow
sed_flow_inter <- results(ddssva, contrast = list(c("Sedimentadded.Flowreduced")), alpha = sig_lvl)

##extract results for the single treatment
flow <- results(ddssva, contrast=c("Flow.Velocity", "reduced", "normal"), alpha = sig_lvl)



sessionInfo( )

R version 4.1.1 (2021-08-10)
Platform: x86_64-w64-mingw32/x64 (64-bit)
Running under: Windows 10 x64 (build 19044)

Matrix products: default

locale:
[1] LC_COLLATE=German_Germany.1252  LC_CTYPE=German_Germany.1252   
[3] LC_MONETARY=German_Germany.1252 LC_NUMERIC=C                   
[5] LC_TIME=German_Germany.1252    

attached base packages:
[1] parallel  stats4    stats     graphics  grDevices utils    
[7] datasets  methods   base     

other attached packages:
 [1] DEGreport_1.28.0            ashr_2.2-54                
 [3] apeglm_1.14.0               PCAtools_2.4.0             
 [5] ggrepel_0.9.1               ggplot2_3.3.6              
 [7] sva_3.40.0                  BiocParallel_1.26.2        
 [9] genefilter_1.74.1           mgcv_1.8-36                
[11] nlme_3.1-152                DESeq2_1.32.0              
[13] SummarizedExperiment_1.22.0 Biobase_2.52.0             
[15] MatrixGenerics_1.4.3        matrixStats_0.62.0         
[17] GenomicRanges_1.44.0        GenomeInfoDb_1.28.4        
[19] IRanges_2.26.0              S4Vectors_0.30.2           
[21] BiocGenerics_0.38.0         tximport_1.20.0            

loaded via a namespace (and not attached):
  [1] colorspace_2.0-3            rjson_0.2.21               
  [3] ellipsis_0.3.2              circlize_0.4.15            
  [5] XVector_0.32.0              ggdendro_0.1.23            
  [7] GlobalOptions_0.1.2         clue_0.3-61                
  [9] rstudioapi_0.13             bit64_4.0.5                
 [11] AnnotationDbi_1.54.1        fansi_1.0.3                
 [13] mvtnorm_1.1-3               codetools_0.2-18           
 [15] splines_4.1.1               sparseMatrixStats_1.4.2    
 [17] logging_0.10-108            mnormt_2.1.0               
 [19] doParallel_1.0.17           cachem_1.0.6               
 [21] knitr_1.39                  geneplotter_1.70.0         
 [23] Nozzle.R1_1.1-1.1           broom_1.0.0                
 [25] annotate_1.70.0             cluster_2.1.2              
 [27] png_0.1-7                   compiler_4.1.1             
 [29] httr_1.4.3                  backports_1.4.1            
 [31] dqrng_0.3.0                 assertthat_0.2.1           
 [33] Matrix_1.3-4                fastmap_1.1.0              
 [35] limma_3.48.3                cli_3.3.0                  
 [37] BiocSingular_1.8.1          lasso2_1.2-22              
 [39] tools_4.1.1                 rsvd_1.0.5                 
 [41] coda_0.19-4                 gtable_0.3.0               
 [43] glue_1.6.2                  GenomeInfoDbData_1.2.6     
 [45] reshape2_1.4.4              dplyr_1.0.9                
 [47] Rcpp_1.0.9                  bbmle_1.0.25               
 [49] vctrs_0.4.1                 Biostrings_2.60.2          
 [51] iterators_1.0.14            DelayedMatrixStats_1.14.3  
 [53] psych_2.2.5                 xfun_0.31                  
 [55] stringr_1.4.0               beachmat_2.8.1             
 [57] lifecycle_1.0.1             irlba_2.3.5                
 [59] XML_3.99-0.10               edgeR_3.34.1               
 [61] zlibbioc_1.38.0             MASS_7.3-54                
 [63] scales_1.2.0                RColorBrewer_1.1-3         
 [65] ComplexHeatmap_2.11.1       memoise_2.0.1              
 [67] emdbook_1.3.12              bdsmatrix_1.3-6            
 [69] reshape_0.8.9               stringi_1.7.6              
 [71] RSQLite_2.2.14              SQUAREM_2021.1             
 [73] foreach_1.5.2               ScaledMatrix_1.0.0         
 [75] shape_1.4.6                 truncnorm_1.0-8            
 [77] rlang_1.0.4                 pkgconfig_2.0.3            
 [79] bitops_1.0-7                lattice_0.20-44            
 [81] invgamma_1.1                purrr_0.3.4                
 [83] cowplot_1.1.1               bit_4.0.4                  
 [85] tidyselect_1.1.2            plyr_1.8.7                 
 [87] magrittr_2.0.3              R6_2.5.1                   
 [89] generics_0.1.3              DelayedArray_0.18.0        
 [91] DBI_1.1.3                   pillar_1.7.0               
 [93] withr_2.5.0                 survival_3.2-11            
 [95] KEGGREST_1.32.0             RCurl_1.98-1.7             
 [97] mixsqp_0.3-43               tibble_3.1.7               
 [99] crayon_1.5.1                utf8_1.2.2                 
[101] GetoptLong_1.0.5            locfit_1.5-9.6             
[103] grid_4.1.1                  blob_1.2.3                 
[105] ConsensusClusterPlus_1.56.0 digest_0.6.29              
[107] xtable_1.8-4                tidyr_1.2.0                
[109] numDeriv_2016.8-1.1         munsell_0.5.0
sva DESeq2 • 138 views
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Entering edit mode
@mikelove
Last seen 3 hours ago
United States

Yes, controlling for covariates can change the sign of the estimated coefficient.

I'd recommend to use the code in the vignette for removing batch variation from VST data, to help you visualize how the experimental variables are operating on the transformed and batch-corrected data, looking one gene at a time.

Below is a classic example:

Simpson's paradox

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Entering edit mode

Thanks a lot!

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