I have problems performing a time-series experiment with Limma-Voom while accounting between-subject variability and age as a covariate. We're especially interested in finding out the effect of age on the time series results, but as I'm new to the Limma-interface, I'm rather hesitant, whether I can trust the pipeline and results.

We have one group with each individual having three time point measurements (PRE, MID, POST). We're interested in detecting differential effects between time points while accounting for between individual variability and age as a covariates. As I've understood in one group time series analysis the duplicateCorrelation() function should be used but not quite sure how to implement in the pipeline based on the vignettes.

The following code runs just fine without clitches and results are somewhat expected i) with and ii) without the age variable in design matrix, but not sure whether the between subject variability is now accounted for in the pipeline.

Thank you so much in advance!

```
########################### Predata processing ###########################
##########################################################################
#Create a edgeR object for analysis
dge <- DGEList(counts=countdata)
################Check how many genes have zero counts across samples ############
table(rowSums(dge$counts==0)==72) #24 individuals, 3 time points
####################### Filter out lowly expressed genes ########################
keep.exprs <- filterByExpr(dge, group=coldata$PRE_MID_POST)
dge <- dge[keep.exprs,, keep.lib.sizes=FALSE]
dim(dge)
######################## Normalize the data ##################
dge <- calcNormFactors(dge, method = "TMM")
dge$samples$norm.factors
######################## Desing matrix generation ######################
design <- model.matrix(~ time + age, coldata)
voom_dge = voom(dge, design, plot=TRUE)
################### Duplicate correlation calculation ##################
dupcor <- duplicateCorrelation(voom_dge, design, block=coldata$subject_id) #cor between samples of the same clone
dupcor$consensus.correlation
#### Transform the data object for differential expression analysis#####
logCPM <- cpm(dge, log=TRUE, prior.count=3)
##########################################################################
########### Differential expression: Limma-Voom ##########################
##########################################################################
#Run the analysis
fit <- lmFit(logCPM, design, block=coldata$subject_id, correlation=dupcor$consensus.correlation)
fit <- eBayes(fit, trend=TRUE)
```