docker run -ti bioconductor/release_core:20160630 R
R version 3.3.1 (2016-06-21) -- "Bug in Your Hair"
Bioconductor version 3.2 (BiocInstaller 1.20.3), ?biocLite for help
BiocInstaller version 3.2 is too old for R version 3.3.1; see
Additionally, the only tag like 3.x set is 3.1. Since it contains R 3.3 the tag seems missing.
Also, on docker hub, (cf https://hub.docker.com/r/bioconductor/release_core/tags/), all tags have the same date (e.g. from 7 days ago). I imagine that you have an automatic process that pushes all versions, but the problem is that it is not easy to figure out when the versions were pushed. Moreover for reproducibility, it is not guaranteed that a tagged version was not changed.